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Ackermann Steering

Ackermann steering
Ackermann steering is a double-pivoting steering system where the outer ends of the steering arms are bent slightly inward so that when the vehicle is making a turn, the inside wheel will turn at a greater angle than the outer wheel. This solves the problem of wheels on the inside and outside of a turn needing to trace out circles of different radius.

Without Ackermann steering one or both of the tires will be forced to scrub the ground sideways a small amout during cornering.

Modern cars do not use pure Ackermann steering, partly because it ignores important dynamic and compliant effects, but the principle is sound for low speed manoeuvres. Some race cars use reverse Ackermann geometry to compensate for the large difference in slip angle between the inner and outer front tires while cornering at high speed. The use of such geometry helps reduce tire temperatures during high-speed cornering but compromises performance in low speed manoeuvres.

Ackermann steering was invented by the Anglo-German inventor Rudolph Ackermann (1764–1834) in 1810 for horse drawn carriages.

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